Diadiaphorus (Diadiaphorus Ameghino, 1887)
Size: 1.2 m in length, 80 cm in height, 70kg of weight
Time period: the Miocene South America
A typical representative: Diadiaphorus caniadensis Ameghino, 1887
Diadiaphorus is an extinct genus of litoptern mammal from the Miocene of South America. Diadiaphorus closely resembled a horse, but was only around 1.2 metres in body length with a weight 70 kg, similar to a modern sheep. It had three toes, only one of which touched the ground. This toe had a large hoof; the two outer toes were rudimentary, much like those of early horses such as Merychippus. Unlike horses, however, Diadiaphorus lacked fused limb bones. Its skull was short and had a relatively large brain cavity. Judging from its low molars, Diadiaphorus ate soft vegetation, such as leaves.