Columbian Mammoth (Mammuthus columbi Hibbard, 1955)
Dimensions: length - 4.25-6 m (withspiralled tusks), height - 3.5-4.0 m, weight - 9000 kg
Temporal range: during the Late Pleistocene epoch (endemic to North America)
The Columbian Mammoth was one of the last members of the American megafauna to go extinct, with the date of disappearance generally set at approximately 12.500 years ago. However, several specimens have been dated to 9.000 years ago or less and one near Nashville, Tennessee was reliably dated to only about 7.800 years ago. The Columbian mammoth was one of the largest of the mammoth species and also one of the largest elephants to have ever lived, measuring 4 metres tall and weighing up to 10 tons. It was 3.3 m long at the shoulder, and had a head that accounted for 12 to 25 percent of its body weight. It had impressive, spiralled tusks which typically extended to 2.0 m. A pair of Columbian Mammoth tusks discovered in central Texas was the largest ever found for any member of the elephant family - 4.9 m long.